How Artificial Intelligence Works and Evolves

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Time to Read | 11 mins

Artificial Intelligence (AI)

Artificial intelligence is the replication of human intelligence processes by machines, particularly computer systems. This includes a learning process, self-correction, and reasoning. Some of the systems used in AI include machine vision, speech recognition, and expert systems.

Artificial intelligence can be categorised as either strong or weak. Strong AI, also known as artificial general intelligence, is an AI system designed with generalised human intellectual abilities, while weak AI is an AI system trained for a particular task. When presented with a task that it is unaccustomed to, a strong AI system is able to find a solution without human intervention.

Because the software, hardware, and staffing costs for AI can be expensive, many vendors include AI components in their typical offerings as well as AI as a service platform. Using artificial intelligence as a service platform allows companies to test run using AI for commercial purposes on different platforms before committing to an agreement. Some of the significant AI cloud offerings available are IBM Watson Assistant, Google AI services, Microsoft Cognitive Services, and Amazon AI.

The use of AI raises many ethical questions, despite the range of new business functionalities it offers. This is because it is subject to human bias and the learning algorithms are only as smart as the data inputted into it, which means that they must be closely monitored.

The movie industry has added to the fears of the public, as many popular movies on AI has made them believe that having a system with an independent mind is the first step to having a machine rebellion. This is not the case; however, as this, AI systems can also be called augmented intelligence systems, which means that they are here to improve products and services and not replace humans.

Types of AI

Types of AI diagram

Artificial intelligence can be categorised into four types:

Reactive machines

Reactive machines are AI systems programmed for a specific task but, having no memories, every job is a new one, and it cannot use previous experience for future assignments. All it does is analyse a specific task per time depending on what it has been programmed to do and proffer a solution. This artificial intelligence system cannot be used for another job other than what it is processed to do.

Limited memory

This is much more different to the reactive machine AI system. This system makes use of past experiences to make future decisions. This sort of AI system can be used in self-driving cars. Observations now or previously can help determine future actions.

Theory of mind AI systems

This AI does not yet exist but is the sort of AI that would have its own consciousness.

Self-awareness AI

This AI system has a sense of self and is also conscious. This is a machine with a self-awareness that understands its current state and can use the information around to deduce how others are feeling. This AI system is still under testing as it does not yet exist.

Examples of AI Technology

The artificial technology is fused into a variety of different types of technology. Here are some cases of AI technology:

Machine Learning

This is the science of getting a computer to act and react without any sort of programming. This is known as deep learning, and is a subsection of machine learning that can be thought of as the automation of predictive analysis. Here are the three major types of algorithms for machine learning:

  • Reinforcement Learning: Here, data sets are not labelled. After performing a series of actions, the AI system is given feedback.
  • Unsupervised Learning: Here, data sets are not labelled, leaving data to be sorted according to differences and similarities.
  • Supervised Learning: Here, we have data sets labelled, so patterns can be detected and used as a label for new data sets.

Machine Vision

This is the science of giving computers the capacity to see. This artificial intelligence system captures and analyses visuals using analogue to digital conversion, digital signal processing, and a camera. This combination is often compared to human eyesight, but leaving out the biological aspect of human nature. It is also programmed for other applications such as medical imaging and signature identification. This machine-based computer vision is often called machine vision.

Automation

This is what makes processes and systems function automatically and independently. An example of this is robotic process automation, which can be programmed to perform repeatable and high-volume tasks usually performed by humans. This AI system can adapt to changing circumstances, making it different from IT automation because it cannot adapt to changing conditions.

Robotics

AI Robot

This is an engineering field focused on the designing and manufacturing of robots. These robots are used to perform tasks often too complicated for humans to perform consistently. An example is on the car production line for the coupling and production of cars.

Natural Language Processing (NLP)

This is the processing of human language by a computer program. One of the best and oldest NLP AI systems is the spam detector, which looks at the subject of an email and decides if it is relevant information or junk. The approach to NLP is based on machine learning. Some other NLP tasks include speech recognition, sentiment analysis, and text translation.

Self-Driving Cars

This is a combination of computer vision, deep learning, and image recognition to build automated skills for piloting a vehicle while in a given lane, avoiding unforeseen impediments like pedestrians.

Artificial Intelligence Applications

There are a number of places today that AI has found its way into as it is a growing industry. Here are some examples of AI application:

Artificial Intelligence in Manufacturing

This is one area of the industry that has really made use of robots and AI systems to increase workflow. Robots were previously used in industry to perform different tasks separated from human workers, but this has all become history as technological advancements have made the coming together of robots and humans safe and effective.

AI in Finance

The use of AI in personal finance applications is unsettling financial institutions today. These applications, such as Turbo, collect personal information, provide financial advice, and give better business analysis. Other more advanced implementations have been applied to trading on Wall Street and the buying of properties.

AI in Arts

Artificial intelligence has inspired many creative applications, especially in the visual arts. AI-based expositions give us a good view of applications of AI for art, design, and architecture. These exhibitions show how we can use AI to produce good artwork. The combination of computing machinery and co-ordinating hardware helps produce beautiful magazines and other publications that are popular today, highlighting the importance of machine learning in art. Just imagine that you wanted to create about 500 pictures of a single person and had to paint the same thing over and over again, it would be far from practical as the majority of the copies would be subject to mistakes, meaning that you would not only take a lot of time to do it, but you would find that there would be more mistakes than great pictures. Overall, it brings perfection to the world of art.

AI in Government

There are varied potential uses of AI in government, with recent research signifying that AI technologies can revolutionise the facet of government operations. Some experts in government consulting suggest the following problems as ripe for AI applications:

  • Resource allocation
  • Procedural tasks
  • Experts shortage
  • Diverse data
  • Large public & employees’ datasets
  • Predictable scenarios
Artificial Intelligence in Law

Organising and finding documents is an overwhelming task for humans. The use of AI systems to organise and find these files is faster and more efficient. Start-ups use automated question and answer systems for many applications.

AI in Business

The robotic process automation is highly applied in repetitive tasks usually performed by humans. With the use of Machine Learning Algorithms, integrated into CRM, and analytics, a better way to serve customers, is always provided on a programmed basis. There are many chatbots used in websites to provide instant services to customers. IT analysts and academics use AI systems for the automation of job positions.

Artificial Intelligence in Law

With the use of computer-generated news and reports by news organisations using software to post articles to social media platforms, the use of AI cannot be under-emphasised.

AI in Healthcare

Doctor using AI

The use of AI systems is one of the best options for reducing cost and improving patient safety. Many healthcare organisations are applying machine learning to make faster and more in-depth diagnoses of patients. These systems understand natural language and are capable of responding to questions asked by humans. This system, therefore, puts together patient data as well as other available data sources to form a useful hypothesis, which is then presented to the person in question.

Other applications of artificial intelligence include chatbots, which are used online to answer questions and assist computers to schedule appointments or  aid patients through billing, as well as a virtual assistant that provides simple medical feedback.

AI in Advertising

It is possible to use AI to predict customer behaviours from the digital footprints they leave. With this, it is possible to target customers using personal promotions, getting them to click on ads related to what they have previously searched for online.

An example of this is the use of cookies on your laptop, where you notice that if you make a particular search, it will probably be displayed as ads later on. This is not a misuse of privacy as most websites that use this technology tell you to acknowledge the use of cookies at the home page or whichever page you have searched.

Also, the application of personality computer AI can help reduce the cost of advertising campaigns adding behavioural targeting.

Artificial Intelligence in Education

With the use of AI systems, educators have access to automated grading, which gives them more time to perform other essential tasks. These systems assess students and adapt to their personality, helping them progress at their own pace. Artificial intelligence tutors provide extra support for students, making sure they do all they have planned in the allocated time. With AI, how students learn and where will perhaps even replace some teachers.

Advantages of AI

While we know that the use of AI has been useful in many aspects of life today, there are some general advantages of using AI. Let us go through some of them:

Digital Assistants

Advanced organisations use digital assistants who can interact with users as a more effective way to serve the needs of clients, saving the need for human resources in that department. These digital assistants are void of emotions, making them the right candidate for the job. Emotions determine our mood, and our mood affects our efficiency when it comes to working. This is not a problem when it comes to machine intelligence.

Daily Operations

Computed methods of learning, perception, and automated reasoning have become common phenomena in today’s developed world. AI systems like Cortana and Siri help us out with our daily and straightforward tasks, while our smartphones, which are used in our everyday lives, are a typical example of how AI systems are designed to help. The use of GPS systems also helps with navigation and driving long distances. They can even predict correct spellings and correct them depending on what our needs are. When we take pictures, we notice face detections and personal tags when posting these photographs on social media platforms.

Fewer Errors

With the help of artificial intelligence systems, we have reduced errors and have a higher chance of achieving accuracy with a higher degree of precision. This is applied in various areas of study where efficiency is on the rise.

Robots are fed with data and are sent to explore target locations since they have a higher chance of avoiding any casualties with their metal bodies, which can acclimatise to any conditions.

Constant Availability

Compared to their human counterparts, who require consistent breaks and holidays, AI systems do not require any break as they are programmed to work for long hours and can work continuously without getting fatigued or distracted.

Completion of Repetitive Tasks

Repetitive tasks are challenging and unmotivating to complete for humans. They can, however, be carried out quickly with the help of machine intelligence as machines can be put into multi-tasking as they think faster. The completion of dangerous tasks might also need the implementation of artificial intelligence, as they have the ability to increase parameters based on circumstances.

Difficult Explorations

Severe and extreme explorations, such as fuel explorations and mining can be more productive with the use of the science of robotics and AI. Other works, such as the exploration of the ocean floors, are something these machines can help with, leading to the completion of more tasks, which have been hard to complete due to human limitations. Robots have the capacity to achieve harder and more laborious tasks more effectively and with much greater ease.

Disadvantages of Artificial Intelligence

As crucial as AI is, it has a downside to it, just like other systems. Let us have a look at some of the disadvantages:

Artificial Intelligence is Subject to Bias

One of the significant concerns with AI is that it might be biased against a particular group of individuals in society, depending on its programming. This is a call for close monitoring, because the ideas and beliefs of the programmer can be passed on to the AI system if care is not taken.

Impact on Employment

Automation and employment have always had a complicated relationship. The majority of people know that the use of automation eliminates some jobs and creates some new ones through micro- and macro-economic effects. Many mid-tier jobs have been eliminated with the use of AI systems. Many futurists warn that many of the critical tasks carried out by humans are likely to be automated within the next couple of decades, particularly with the constant advancement of AI technology.

Effect on Humanity

The AI system has no capacity to genuinely stimulate human sympathy, and with its constant use in fields such as psychotherapy and customer service, there is a question mark on how effective it can be. Most AI programmers view the human mind as simple programming, making it something they can emulate effectively, which is not only wrong but a big problem to what humanity stands for.

Autonomous Weapons

Due to specific regional conflicts, many countries are looking to improve on their weapons systems with the use of battlefield robots. This is the case in countries such as the United States, Russia, the United Kingdom, and China. This is a considerable concern with such an effective system being weaponised.

Considered a Threat to Humanity

Many popular entrepreneurs in society have expressed concerns about the possibility of AI systems evolving to a point beyond human control. Many believe that the advancement of these AI systems can lead to the end of the human race being caused by machine rebellions.

Regulation of Artificial Intelligence Technology

Irrespective of the risks attached to the use of AI technology, there are few regulations covering its use. This is certainly because generally speaking; there is a lot to be done in terms of regulations and laws to prevent any bias in the application of AI technology. Many factors and fail-safe adjustments still need to be carried out for the proper appropriation of the next-generation AI systems to be trusted by the people.

Conclusion

The evolution of artificial intelligence is perhaps one of the most significant events in human history. If developed and used constructively, the use of AI can propel humanity to the next level of survival, eradicating hunger and poverty from the human race.

One argument that has always taken the headlines with regard to AI is whether we can ever achieve the perfect type, with the inventors of this technology positive that it has been created for the betterment of the human race.

We cannot ignore the damage and destruction the power of AI has brought to us since inception. However, this is not something that cannot be prevented, with proper research and control systems. With this research, we can harness the power of the AI system safely.

AI would not change the way we think or the way we live but would give us a new way of living our best lives. As humans, one thing is constant, and that is development. As we develop, we get better at defining what we want and bringing it into reality.

With every innovation, one thing that is certain is a difference in opinion. Some people view the evolution of artificial intelligence as playing God, others see it as too risky to control, and for some others, it is pretty safe.

I would say that before proper enlightenment on the benefits of the AI system, I was in the first category. This was further heightened when I watched iRobot by Will Smith back in 2004, where there was a robot rebellion. I was sure that this was going to be the case with the evolution and development of AI, but as time went by, with much enlightenment, I have come to realise that we as humans are more in control than you could ever imagine.

This article has been well researched with proper information on AI systems, the characteristics, the advantages and disadvantages, as well as the applications. Can we categorise this as an in-depth analysis of the AI systems? Definitely not, as that would not help us relay the information we want to pass on to you.

Do you have any comments on the evolution and development of the AI systems? Please let us know in the comment section below.

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